Saturday, August 19, 2017

Kosakata Arsitektur | Architecture Glossaries

Halo Arsilogers, kali ini arsilogi akan sajikan berbagai kosakata yang biasa atau lazim digunakan dalam dunia arsitektur. Tentu saja, memperbanyak pengetahuan tentang kosakata arsitektur dapat membantu kita memahami dunia arsitektur secara lebih mudah. Berikut adalah kosakata yang dipublikasikan secara umum di iTunes Edu. Di lain waktu, kita buat versi Indonesianya ya! Insyaallah.
Selamat membaca! :)


Abstraction: 1. A summary of an idea. 2. A distillation of a basic idea or parti into its most significant or telling parts.
Acropolis: The citadel of an ancient Greek city, usually containing a sacred site.
Additive form: Characterized by a basic process which in volves adding simple solids together to make a more complex whole. Objects can be seen as being attached to other objects.
Aedicula, aedicule: Literally, Latin for 'little house', commonly used to signify a small temple -like structure in which columns or pilasters support a pedimented roof.
Agora: An open-air area, used as a market and place of assembly in ancient Greece.
Agrarian Ideal: Promulgated by Thomas Jefferson and other founding fathers, the Agrarian Ideal celebrated the virtue, industry and simplicity of agricultural life. The health and piety of self-sufficient farmers in decentralized agricultural settlements was opposed to the dependency, vice and impurity fostered by crowded, unhygienic urban conditions, such as those that typified European metropolises in the eighteenth century.
Aisle: A passageway or corridor parallel to the nave of a church or basilica, and separated from it by a colonnade or arcade.
Allegory: A figurative or verbal depiction or discussion of one subject under the guise of another. A fable or any other symbolic narrative.
Ambiguity: Equivocal or uncertain in meaning. William Empson's Seven Types of Ambiguity outlines how ambiguity may create richness and poetic meaning.
Ambulatory: The aisle around the chancel or choir of a Latin cross church.
Amphitheater: an oval or circular shaped outdoor per- formance area surrounded by sloping tiers of seats, usually semi-circular in form and sited to take advantage of natural basins in the topography.
Analytic Cubism: A form of Cubism typified by the work of Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso from 1909-1911. Characterized by a restricted palette of neutral colors, multiple points of view, fragmentation and transparency, figural subject matter is disintegrated and re-presented in flattened , ambiguous pictorial space. See Cubism.
Angst: German for 'fear' or 'anxiety', used by psycholo- gists to refer to the lingering dread characteristic of the modem condition
Annular: Ring-shaped.
Anthropomorphic: The ascription of human characteris- tics or human form to things or beings that are not human.
Apse: A semi-circular or polygonal niche, usually found in a Roman basilica at both ends of the nave, and in a Chris- tian church at the end of the nave behind the choir, and/or at both ends of the transept, and at the ends of chapels.
Aqueduct: A masonry structure which supports an arti- ficial channel for the transport of water.
Arcade: A linear arrangement of arches supported by columns or piers, free-standing or engaged in a larger archi- tectural composition.
Arcadia: A mythical place which exemplifies the sim- plicity and rustic innocence of the pastoral life, from a mountainous district in ancient Greece famed for its easeful, peaceful way of life.
Arch: An architectural construction built to span an opening. Often semi-circular, it can be built of wedge- shaped blocks (voussoirs), bricks, or other stone. The weight of the structure requires both vertical support in the form of walls, columns, or piers, and lateral support for the thrust, called buttressing.
Archaic: Old-fashioned or primitive; in Greek art and architecture, a period from 600 to 500 B.C.
Archetype: A model or primal form of which all things of the same species are copies. The archetype contains essen- tial characteristics which are primitive, general, and universal rather than particular or specialized.
Architectonic: Having qualities specific to architecture.
Architecture parlante: Literally, French for 'speaking ar-chitecture'; an architectural theory popular in Revolutionary France which linked the formal development and omamentation of a building to the expression and representation of its function.
Architrave: 1. Horizontal component of the architectural Orders which spans from column to column; the lowest part of the entablature. 2. Molding around a door or window.
Arcuation: A constructional system reliant on arches and vaults.
Arena: The stage or space in the center of a Greek or Roman amphitheater.
Arithmetic mean: A proportioning system which relates three terms so that the relationship of the middle term to the extremes is: B-A• C-B, as in 2:1 =- 3:2.
Articulation: The surface expression of underlying
structure or joints, or the way in which the parts are shown to relate to the whole, etc. The clarification of various rela- tionships within a wall or built structure.
Asceticism: The practice of rigorous self-denial, absti- nence, austerity,andthemortificationoftheflesh.
Association, Associationism: An architectural theory which governed the adoption of historicist styles so that the function and decorum of the building could be most legibly expressed.
Asymmetry: Not symmetrical; one half of the image is not a mirror image of the other along a central dividing line or axis.
Atelier: French for 'studio' or 'workshop'.
Atrium: The courtyard of an ancient Roman or Etruscan house; enclosedopenpublicspaceinamulti-storybuilding.
Avant-garde: Literally, 'the vanguard'; often used in ref- erence to progressive architectural movements which arose in the 1910's, 1920's and 1930's and which took an adversarial stance towards architectural history and tradition.
Axiality: Relationship or organization along an axis, i.e. a conceptual connecting or dividing line.
Axis: 1. The line or segment about which a rotated body or form is turned. 2. A line which bisects a body or form along which symmetry or asymmetry is determined. 3. A structure or datum along which objects are arranged. 4. A line connecting two points.
Axis mundi: A vertical axis which connects the earth with the sky.
Axonometric: A paraline drawing; a geometric, architec- tural drawing which represents the three-dimensional appearance of objects in such a way that vertical lines remain vertical, parallel lines remain parallel, and all lines parallel to the X, Y and Z axes are drawn to scale.
Balustrade: A railing comprised of a series of balusters, or short posts.
Baptistery: A building or part of a church used for bap- tisms; often a free-standing octagonal building adjacent to a church.
Bar/object organization: An architectural parti which makes use of a linear datum to organize more figural ele- ments in the composition.
Baroque: A style developed in sixteenth century Italy, characterized by exaggerated ornamental, pictorial and sce- nographic effects, the bold use of light, the dynamic interplay of forms and masses, and complex columnar rhythms.
Barrel vault The horizontal extension of an arch be- comes a barrel vault which requires both continuous support along its length and (usually) buttressing.
Base: From the Greek "basis", literally meaning "some- thing upon which one stands", the lower portion of any building or architectural element, such as a column base.
Basilica: Originally a Roman public meeting place and hall of Justice, the basilica is a rectangular building with a nave, side aisles and one or more apse.. The basilican form was adopted as the basic church plan in Early Christian ar- chitecture, with nave, central apse, and side aisles. In both Roman and Christian basilicas, the massing of the elevation usually reflects the disposition of the plan in that both em- body A-B-A proportional systems, with A<B.
Bastide: A French medieval new town, for trade or mili- tary activities, usually laid out on a four-square grid, following the model of the Roman camp.
Bay: The space on a wall between two vertical elements; the space between structural columns in a column grid.
Beam: A horizontal structural support or member.
Bearing wall: A wall which acts as a structural support.
Beaux-Arts: French for 'Fine Arts', used in reference to style promulgated by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the French academy of architecture which favored the use of the classi- cal orders, elaborate symmetries, axial organizations, heavy poche and great pomp.
Biomorphic: Form derived from that of a living organ- ism. See zoamorphic, vegemorphic.
Bird's eye view: An elevated view point, similar to an aerial view.
Bosque: A naturalistic wooded area in a garden design.
Bracket A structural support projecting out from a wall, often shaped like a scroll.
Brise soliel: A wall, sometimes louvered, designed to act as a sun screen.
Buttress: Asupport; amasonrymasswhichresistslat- eral thrust.
Byzantine: Pertaining to the Byzantine Empire, i.e. the Eastern Roman Empire, after the fall of Rome in A.D. 476 ; the style produced during the Byzantine Empire, character- ized by centralized plans, round arches, extensive vaulting. and abundant use of painted or mosaic ornamentation.
Campanile: Italian for 'bell tower'.
Canopy: An overhanging cover or roof-like shelter which may be attached to a building or free-standing.
Cantilever: 1. A structural system of support at only one end. 2. A projecting beam or slab supported only at one end. 2. A projecting bracket that supports a cornice, balcony, or other small overhanging element.
Capital: From the Latin "caput", literally "head". The top of a column or pilaster, usually elaborated according to one of the architectural Orders.
Cardo: The main north-south street in the lay-out of a Roman settlement.
Cartesian space: Based on the X, Y, Z coordinate system of Rene Descartes, an infinitely expandable, infinitely homo- geneous space defined by a squared grid.
Caryatid: The figure of a woman used as a columnar support.
Casino: A small garden house.
Castra: A Roman camp, usually organized as a four- square grid by the crossing of a major north-south road (Cardo) and a major east-west road (Decumanus).
Cella: In Greek or Roman architecture, an interior walled structure built within the temple, surrounded by col- onnades, to house a cult image.
Cellular: Made up of discrete repetitive units, or cells, (small, regular, usually square or rectangular room units).
Cenotaph: A funerary monument.
Center: 1. The core or middle point or area. 2. An important or principle point or space.
Centering: A temporary framework used during construction of masonry arches, vaults and domes.
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Center line: A graphic or conceptual device that marks the center to a composition; the center line may be the axis of symmetry.
Centralized: 1. Dominated or controlled by a central point or space. 2. Radiating from a central point or space.
Centralized plan: A building plan which is organized around a central point.
Chancel: The eastern extension of a church beyond the crossing which contains the altar and which is reserved for the clergy; the part of ac hurch which consists of the choir and the ambulatory.
Chapter House: A building attached to a cathedral or monastery which houses the meetings of the chapter (an as- sembly of monks, canons or representatives)
Character: An eighteenth and nineteenth century archi- tectural theory which held that the outward appearance and style of a building should be a decorous expression of its function.
Charette: French for 'little cart', the term comes from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts where the charette was used to collect drawings after the end of a fixed deadline. In architectural schools and in practice, charette has come to mean the flurry of sleepless activity that precedes a deadline.
Choir: In a Latin cross church the part of the church reserved for the clergy, which extends eastwards from the crossing towards the altar, ringed by the ambulatory.
Chthonic: Earth-dwelling; relating to the deities or spir- its or the underworld.
Circulation: The means of passage from one place to another; the system of movement through a space or a series of spaces.
Cladding: The exterior surface or skin of a building. ap- plied to a structural frame.
Classicism: 1. The adherence to principles of classical literature and art, particularly Greek and Roman. 2. Architecture comprised of the Classical Orders and Graeco-Roman building types, usually symmetrical or incorporating local symmetries, and thought to embody timelessness, perfection of proportion and serene dignity.
Clerestory window: In Egyptian temples, Roman basili- cas, and Christian basilican churches, the windows within the section of interior wall that rise above the adjacent roof line (i.e. the wall between the nave and the side aisles).
Cloisters: Colonnaded walkways which surround a courtyard in a monastery.
Clustered: A number of similar objects grouped together. 
Coffer: An ornamental sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. 
Collage: A composition made by the free assembly of
diverse elements and forms.
Colonnade: A series of columns spanned by lintels. Colossal order: An architectural order that organizes
two or more stories of a building.
Column: A cylindrical support, usually consisting of
base, shaft, and capital.
Calumniation: The rhythmic system of arranging columns.

10 comments:

  1. Replies
    1. makasi udah berkunjung. yuk baca artikel terbarunya dan jangan lupa follow blog ini! ^^

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  2. Sembari menambah kosakata bahasa ingris ni namanya , keren kak.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. heheh, terimakasih sudah berkunjung ke arsilogi! ^^

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  3. Kasih gambarnya, Mas. Biar hasil imajinasinya sesuai deskripsi ��

    ReplyDelete
  4. Nunggu versi bahasa indonya bang

    ReplyDelete
  5. Wah..hampir keseluruhannya berbahasa Inggris>< mantap kak😃

    ReplyDelete

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ARSILOGI
Adalah sebuah portal untuk berbagi berbagai hal tentang arsitektur. Ada info menarik, cerita, contoh projek, imajenasi dan banyak lagi. Selengkapnya..